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Our partnersCotton made in Africa

The partners of Cotton made in Africa come from a range of different sectors – from government and private-sector funding organisations, from cotton companies and consulting organisations, and from partners in the Demand Alliance – all of them are supporting the initiative with their specific expertise.

Private Sector:

ARQUEONAUTAS

ARQUEONAUTAS

ARQUENAUTAS, a label that belongs to House of Brands, is a maritime fashion company founded in 2008. Its name refers to the close link to the marine archaeological company Arqueonautas Worldwide Arqueologia Subaquática S.A. (AWW) in Portugal. The fashion of ARQUEONQUTAS combines casual and timeless design with a pinch of adventure and lifestyle. Its clothes stand out due to high-quality workmanship, special materials, attention to details together with elaborated prints and applications. The social and ecological resposility in textile production is one of the main elements of the ARQUEONAUTAS philosophy.  Keven Costner ist the company‘s most important brand ambassador.
BAUR

BAUR

BAUR Versand GmbH & Co KG was founded by Dr. Friedrich Baur as the first shoe mail order business in Burgkunstadt, Germany in 1925. The idea of collective orders and the 1935 introduced installment payments have been the key to his success. Since 1997 otto group is a shareholder of Baur. Today the assortment consists of fashion, shoes, furniture and living accessoires. The target group are customers with high demand for quality and service.
bonprix

bonprix

bonprix is one of the leading suppliers for fashion in Germany and Europe. Since its foundation 1986 the subsidary of the otto group has developed consequently and is today an internationally established company based in Hamburg. The assortment ranges from clothing over underwear and shoes to furniture and household products. The company focuses on a multi-channel strategy - a mixture of catalogue business, e-commerce and own stores in Germany, Austria, Italy, Austria as well as Switzerland.
C&A

C&A

What started off as a two-man operation in 1841 is today one of Europe's leading fashion companies. C&A offers fashion for the whole family. The twelve dedicated private label brands ensure hip and trendy or classic and elegant fashion styles, fulfilling the customer wishes. The founders' heirs recognized the potential of the business concept and expanded into neighbouring countries resulting  in more than 1,500 C&A branchs in 21 European countries, employing more than 37,500 employees. With 500 stores, Germany represents the biggest market, followed by the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Spain and France. C&A Europe is an enterprise of COFRA Holding AG.
engelbert strauss

engelbert strauss

engelbert strauss is leading supplier and brand manufacturer of work-clothes and protective work wear. The owner-operated family company based in Biebergemünd/Frankfurt employees about 900 members of staff. engelbert strauss operates eight subsidiaries in Europe and serves beyond a large amount of international and industrial customers. The company offers its customers technically and industrially elaborated in-house developments for clothing, shoes and an extended range of products. engelbert strauss distributes its assortment and accessory online, via catalogue or its own stores. Since 2013 the company is partnering with the Cotton made in Africa Initiative.
Ernsting's family

Ernsting's family

The Ernsting’s family GmbH & Co. KG is one the leading, German textile chain with round about 1700 branches and more than 10,000 employees. The headquarter is based in Coesfeld-Lette. The companys‘s focus lies on fashion for the whole family with an emphasis on women‘s and children‘s wear fitted for the needs of young families.  Its aim is to achieve their customer‘s satisfaction by attractive fashion, fair prices, guaranteed quality and best service. The company persues this goal with social , societal and economical responsibility. This sustainability guarantees reliability for its customers and ensures its success: today and in the future.
ERKO TEXTIL

ERKO TEXTIL

ERKO TEXTIL, founded in 1977, is a family business, which operates throughout Europe in the field of home textiles. Already since 1995 ERKO TEXTIL adresses bed linen, which have been produced in an ecologially, socially responsible and sustainable manner. Therefore the company is glad to be able to offer a further complement in its assortment and at the same time make a contribution to the work of the Initiative in sub-Saharan Africa due to the partnership with Cotton made in Africa.
Gerhard Rösch GmbH

Gerhard Rösch GmbH

The Gerhard Rösch Gmbh is a third-generation family business. The textile company with its leading position in lingerie market was founded in Brühl in 1949. Several times the company has been awarded for its family-friendly policy. The assortment includes swim-, beach-, leisure wear, under- and nightwear for the private labels RÖSCH, Blanche Fleur and the licence brand FÈRAUD Paris. The family business has entranched into an internationally prestigious company in the textile industry.
heine

heine

The Heinrich Heine GmbH is leading supplier of latest fashion and inspiring furnishing ideas. The German-based multi-channel-consignor was founded 1951 by Karl Heinrich Heine and is a 100% subsidary of the otto group since 1967. There are currently about 640 employees working at the headquarter in Southern Germany. Besides Heine is also represented in Austria, Switzerland, France and the Netherlands.
H.I.S.

H.I.S.

H.I.S. Jeans has been founded in 1923 by Henry I. Siegel as „Honesdale Manufacturing Co.“ in New York. The company belongs to the oldest jeansbrands in the world. Furthermore H.I.S. numbers among  the  inventors of the modern fit. In the 70s Jesse Siegel, the son of the founder of H.I.S., surprised the jeans industry with providing every jeans model in different leg lengths and styles. Besides the unique fit the social- and environmentally compatible production are of great importance to H.I.S.. Being partner of the Cotton made in Africa (CmiA)  Initiative H.I.S. demonstrates responsibility for African smallholder farmers.
OTTO

OTTO

For over six decades OTTO has been providing fashion and lifestyle products on order and is one of today’s most successful e-commerce companies. Since its foundation, dialogue with its customers has always been a core focus of this home-shopping retailer.
The single company OTTO employs around 4,200 people at its Hamburg location. Dr Michael Otto, son of the company founder and for many years Chairman of the Executive Board, developed the mail-order company Otto-Versand into Otto Group, the internationally active retail and services group of 123 companies in 20 countries.
As early as 25 years ago he defined protecting the environment as an additional company objective and became a pioneer of sustainable business management. Starting in March 2013 OTTO is now communicating its sustainability goals under the new campaign INITIATIVE ZUKUNFT. Among these sustainability goals is the commitment to convert the whole of its own cotton ranges to cotton cultivated under sustainable conditions. Cotton made in Africa therefore plays an important role for OTTO and the whole otto group.
Otto Group

Otto Group

Established in 1949 in Germany, the Otto Group is a globally operating retail and services group with approx. 50,000 employees. The Group’s 123 main companies do business in 20 European, North American and Asian countries and are active in the three segments of Multichannel Retail, Financial Services and Service. The Otto Group is Europe's biggest online retailer for fashion and lifestyle with the end consumer (B2C). Catalogue mail-order, e-commerce and over-the-counter retail form the three pillars of the Otto Group’s Multichannel Retail activities. Its global business activities, numerous strategic partners and joint ventures give the Otto Group excellent opportunities to transfer know-how and to exploit synergy potential. At the same time, Group companies enjoy a high degree of individual responsibility which guarantees flexibility, proximity to the customer and an optimal approach to customer target groups in the respective international markets.

Penny

Penny

PENNY offers innovative concepts and thereby a remarkable added value for ist clients in its 2,250  branches throughout Germany. Besides  groceries and services Penny offers attractive textiles each week. Penny is part of REWE Group based in Cologne/Germany and with a turnover of more than 10 billion Euros it numbers among the leading supermarkts in Europe. Its 3,600 branches with almost 46,000 employees are not only based in Germany but also in Austria, Italy, Rumania, Czech Republic, Bulgaria and Hungary.
PUMA

PUMA

PUMA is one of the world’s leading sport lifestyle companies that designs and develops footwear, apparel and accessories. It is committed to working in ways that contribute to the world by supporting creativity, sustainability and peace, and by staying true to the principles of being fair, honest, positive and creative in decisions made and actions taken. PUMA starts in sport and ends in fashion. Its Sport Performance and lifestyle labels include categories such as football, running, motorsports, golf and sailing. The company, which was founded in 1948, distributes its products in more than 120 countries, employs about 11,000 people worldwide and has headquarters in Herzogenaurach/Germany, Boston, London and Hong Kong.
Reliable Hosiery

Reliable Hosiery

For 50 years, Canadian retailers and consumers have relied upon Reliable Hosiery for locally manufactured, high quality, fashion-forward hosiery at competitive prices.
Founded upon the principles of innovation, productivity and Canadian standards of excellence in workmanship and business practice, Reliable Hosiery is proud to be living proof that Canadian manufacturers can continue to compete successfully on the international stage.
The hosiery mill has been operating successfully since 1959 and invested in 2007 in the latest technology from Italy to begin manufacturing cotton socks as well.
By participating in the environmentally and socially beneficial program of the Cotton made in Africa Initiative, Reliable Hosiery is manufacturing high quality socks using ethically produced cotton from CmiA, enhancing lives through positive business practices.

REWE Group

REWE Group

The REWE Group, based in Cologne, Germany is one of Europe’s leading retail and tourism company groups. In 2008 the Group generated record sales of some 50 billion euros, has more than 319,000 employees and operates close to 14,700 supermarkets in Germany and 15 other European countries. In a world of globalizing markets, companies’ responsibility towards people, the environment as well as to the diversity of cultures is growing. Therefore, the success of a company can be measured by the sustainability of its actions and by the degree to which it assumes its corporate social responsibilities. The REWE Group is very much aware of this and has set itself the objective of reconciling economic, ecological, social and cultural requirements within its business model. The Group has been committed for several years to sustainable development in its various business sectors and is constantly expanding its Retail and Tourism business lines in accordance with this philosophy. 

Schwab

Schwab

Schwab Versand was founded by the businessman Friedrich Schwab in Hanau 1954 and is a subsidary of otto group since 1976. The business segments are multichannel retail and service. In its core business, the mail order sector, Schwab is ranked under the top 5 of the full line suppliers for fashion, technology and household products in Germany. Furthermore Schwab exports in more than 30 countries.
s.Oliver

s.Oliver

1969 owner Bernd Freier opened the first store of todays fashion company s.Oliver in Würzburg, Germany. Since then the company has developed into one of the leading clothing manufacturer in Europe with more than a billion volume of sales.
In Germany and internationally s.Oliver stands for fashion for every personality and every event. s.Oliver products can be bought in over 30 countries. Almost 7,200 employees work on the success of the international company worldwide. Out of a small retail store one of 20th largest fashion companies in Europe has arisen.
Tchibo GmbH

Tchibo GmbH

Tchibo with registered offices in Hamburg is one of Germany's largest globally operating consumer goods and retailing companies. The company was founded in 1949 and stands for a unique business model: It unites the ultimate in coffee roasting competence and surprises every week with a different range of consumer articles. Tchibo is one of the largest textile suppliers in Germany. Since 2008 Tchibo has been supporting the "Cotton made in Africa" initiative and is also a member of the advisory board of the "Aid by Trade Foundation".
TOM TAILOR Holding AG

TOM TAILOR Holding AG

The TOM TAILOR Group is an international and vertically integrated lifestyle company. It offers stylish casual wear and accessories for men, women, teenagers and children in the medium price range. Since the Company's establishment in 1962 its authentic fashions have highlighted a positive and light-hearted attitude to life. Every year 12 collections are developed for each of the product lines TOM TAILOR Casual and TOM TAILOR Denim. The high-quality fashion sphere is complemented by several licensed product groups.
UNITO

UNITO

The UNITO-group is a subsidiary of the internationally operating otto group and its business activities cover the fields E-Commerce/Multichannel retail, financial services and B2B. The UNITO-group operates with their successful brands in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and South Tyrol and serves therefore a market with about 100 millions potential customers. Social and economical responsibility plays an important role in all companies of the otto group. Thus the UNITO-group and its brands rely on sustainably produced textiles, which are sold under the umbrella brand ECO, where also Cotton of the initiative Cotton made in Africa (CmiA) is used. For more information: ottoversand.at
 Since 2012 OTTO Austria – part of the UNITO-group- supports literacy project of the Aid by Trade Foundation in Burkina Faso, in which cotton farmers and their families learn to read, write and arithmetic.
Vlisco

Vlisco

Vlisco Group is a design house that develops, produces and exports colourful African print designs for the Western and Central African markets, and African consumers in large metropolitan centres such as New York, London and Paris. The Vlisco Group has four unique brands in its portfolio: Vlisco, Woodin, Uniwax and GTP. Since it was established in 1846, Vlisco designs and fabrics have grown to become an essential part of African style culture, with deep-rooted influences across all layers of society. The unique Vlisco signature enjoys worldwide recognition in the art, design and fashion worlds.
Witt Weiden

Witt Weiden

Witt Weiden was founded by Josef Witt in Reuth 1907. Today the fashion mail order retailer is an internationally operating company with 2,400 employees. It operates in 10 different countries with five brands. The focus of the assortment is fashion and lingerie for the woman aged over 50, supplemented by men fashion and shoes. Witt stands for individual service, an above-average value-for-money value, perfect fit and size selection.
Accenture

Accenture

Accenture is a globally active management consultancy, technology and outsourcing service provider. It works with its customers to put innovations into practice, thus improving their performance. Accenture has extensive industry knowledge, business process know-how, and international teams with strong implementation expertise, enabling it to provide the right staff, skills and technologies to improve the performance of its customers. With some 175,000 employees in 49 countries, Accenture earned net revenues of 19.7 billion US dollars in the past fiscal year (to 31 August 2007). Accenture also engages in Corporate Social Responsibility, with voluntary involvement in numerous relief projects worldwide. The aim is to work particularly in development cooperation, on projects that help people to help themselves, thus giving people new perspectives. That is why Accenture supports the "Cotton made in Africa" initiative.

Accuracy

Accuracy

Accuracy is the only truly independent European operator that can offer companies and their shareholders a global reach in the field of financial consultancy services. Accuracy now has offices in seven European countries and performs its services around the globe. Accuracy boasts a full range of skills in the economic, financial and accounting fields. Accuracy uses these skills cohesively to reach a single goal: to give meaning to numbers by analysing them, criticising them, guaranteeing their reliability and making comments that lead to effective decision-making. To achieve this, Accuracy combines extensive know-how in areas such as auditing techniques, valuations, financial modelling, financial forecasting, and market analyses in order to serve its clients and help them deal with diverse situations including: acquisitions, disposals, companies in difficulty, restructuring, litigation and dispute resolution.
Avery Dennison

Avery Dennison

Avery Dennison Information and Brand Management Division (IBMD) is a global expert and customer driven innovator in retail tag, ticketing and brand identification. The company is the supplier of choice for the world's leading apparel retailers, brand owners and contractors with a product portfolio which includes graphic tags and tickets, variable data, printed and woven labels, heat transfers and patches, eco-friendly apparel trim, packaging solutions, security and in-plant printing solutions, RFID solutions, web services and designer label collections. Through global scale and local presence, Avery Dennison IBMD offers customers co-ordinated labeling programmes in line with retailer/brand specification that are supplied and supported locally at point of manufacture to ensure global product consistency and integrity and at the same time a responsive local service.

ethicalexpert

ethicalexpert

ethicalexpert limited is about ‘securing profitable supply chains for brands and workers’ that is why we are delighted to partner with Cotton made in Africa. We believe that securing sustainable livelihoods for producers in developing countries can be an integral part of securing long term profit for brands in the west. CmiA has proven that this is possible and is providing great value for brands extending their ethical buying programmes as well giving more secure livelihoods to small scale farmers.

Non Govermental Organisations (NGOs) and Foundations:

Alterra, Universität Wageningen

Alterra, Universität Wageningen

Wageningen University, part of Wageningen UR, is the only university in the Netherlands to focus specifically on the theme ‘healthy food and living environment’. We do so by working closely together with governments and the business community. Our research and education are strongly geared toward application in practice. This is achieved through the close cooperation across different study directions and the combination of the natural and social sciences.

Better Cotton Initiative (BCI)

Better Cotton Initiative (BCI)

Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) has been founded in 2009 to develop global systems and standards for Better Cotton. BCI is a not-for-profit membership organisation which exists to make global cotton production better for the people who produce it, better for the environment it grows in and better for the sector’s future.
At the end of August 2013 the Aid by Trade Foundation (AbTF) and Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) signed a long-term cooperation agreement. By signing this agreement, both organizations underscore their goal to continue to improve the living conditions of smallholder farmers in developing regions through sustainable cotton production. Consequently, CmiA cotton will continue to be sold as Better Cotton to BCI members.
Get to know more about the cooperation between AbTF and BCI here.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In developing countries, it focuses on improving people’s health and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to ensure that all people—especially those with the fewest resources—have access to the opportunities they need to succeed in school and life. Based in Seattle, Washington, the foundation is led by CEOEO Jeff Raikes and Co-chair William H. Gates Sr., under the direction of Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett.

C&A Foundation

C&A Foundation



C&A Foundation, a charitable foundation based in Switzerland, aims to improve social, economic and ecological conditions along the cotton and apparel value chain.  Committed to the communities in which C&A operates, the foundation also promotes local charitable initiatives, ultimately touching the lives of hundreds of thousands of people in Europe, Asia, and Latin America.

Naturschutzbund Deutschland e.V.

Naturschutzbund Deutschland e.V.

For over a hundred years now, the Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union (NABU) has been promoting the interests of people and nature, drawing on its unwavering commitment, specialised know-how and the backing of its 400,000 members. NABU, one of the leading non-profit and non-governmental organizations for nature conservation and environmental protection in Germany, has clearly defined aims: preserving habitat and species biodiversity, promoting sustainable agriculture, forestry and water management and attaining an enhanced profile within society for nature conservation. Further key focal points in our work include combating global warming, sustainable development of urban areas and transport infrastructure, consumer protection and international projects. Africa, Central Asia and Caucasus form the geographical focus of international commitment. In respect of content, NABU's work connects ecologic and social aspects ranging from conservation of habitat and species diversity, ecotourism and environmental education to capacity building, poverty alleviation and strengthening of civil society. NABU is the German Partner of BirdLife International.

Sustainable Apparel Coalition

Sustainable Apparel Coalition

The Sustainable Apparel Coalition is an industry-wide group of over 100 leading apparel and footwear brands, retailers, suppliers, nonprofits, and NGOs working to reduce the environmental and social impacts of apparel and footwear products around the world. The focus of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition is The Higg Index that measures the environmental performance of apparel products. Future versions will include footwear products and measure social performance. 
Social Accountability International (SAI)

Social Accountability International (SAI)

Social Accountability International (SAI), the New York-based non-profit human rights organization most recognized for developing and overseeing the SA8000 standard for decent work. The elements of the standard are based on the stringent ILO and UN conventions. SAI is one of the leading social compliance training organizations - from the factory level to company management.

Welthungerhilfe

Welthungerhilfe

The German famine relief organization Deutsche Welthungerhilfe is one Germany's largest private-sector organizations for development cooperation and humanitarian aid. It is a non-profit organization, and is independent of political and religious organizations. Emergency aid was the focus in the beginning; today Welthungerhilfe wants to focus primarily on long-range goals. However, Welthungerhilfe was and remains a reliable partner in the event of famines, floods, droughts and earthquakes. And the vision of Welthungerhilfe remains steadfast: All people deserve the opportunity to lead a self-determined and dignified life. Since its foundation in 1962, all German Federal Presidents have taken on patronage of Welthungerhilfe.

World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF)

World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF)

The World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) is one of the world's largest independent nature conservation organizations. The WWF was founded in Switzerland on 11 September 1961. By 2001 alone, it had collected more than 2,8 billion Euro and used these funds to conduct more than 11,000 nature conservation projects worldwide. The WWF is active in more than 90 countries, and is supported by nearly five million donors.

Public Sector:

Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)

Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)

The work of the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is directed at reducing poverty worldwide, securing peace, and making globalisation fair. This is increasingly done in the form of cooperation with the private sector. It is characteristic of Public Private Partnership (PPP) activities that they give economic benefit to the partner companies and at the same time give added value for development policy.

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit

The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH (German Society for Technical Cooperation) supports complex reforms and change processes in developing and transformation countries. All its activities are aimed at improving the conditions of life and perspectives of the people on a permanent basis. The GIZ is active worldwide.

Deutsche Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH (DEG)

Deutsche Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH (DEG)




DEG, the Deutsche Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, is a company in the KfW bank group. It is one of the largest European development financing institutions for long-term project and company funding. The DEG invests in projects which are effective for development in all areas of the economy - from farming to services, and including infrastructure. Another major area of its activities is investment in the finance sector.

Cotton Companies:

Alliance - Zambia

Alliance - Zambia

          

  





Cargill - Zambia

Cargill - Zambia

Cargill has been active in Zambia since 2006, focusing on cotton as well as grain and oil seeds. It has around 800 employees based in Chipata. Cargill's grain and oilseeds business recently opened operations based in Lusaka and currently employs around 30 people.
Cargill has a long history of supporting cotton farmers in Africa through a variety programmes, including the Competitive African Cotton Initiative (COMPACI) that improves agricultural practices all along the cotton supply chain. The company already provides essential financial and technical support to farmers, offering better access to crop inputs and helping farmers increase their incomes through a range of training programmes linking to its network of 560 farmer training schools.
Faso Coton - Burkina Faso

Faso Coton - Burkina Faso

Faso Coton’s key principle is to promote and develop cotton cultivation, in order to reinvest the value added from that for improvement in the conditions of life of the producers in their area of activity. Based on its development in agriculture and the expertise gained by Ivoire Coton in Côte d’Ivoire, the Faso Coton company was set up by Industrial Promotion Services (WA) in Burkina Faso in 2004, with the following major goals:
  • Sustainable securing of cotton cultivation at the Burkina Faso centre;

  • Improvement in conditions of life of the smallholder farmers by further development of the agricultural potential of their growing area.
Great Lakes Cotton Company -  Malawi

Great Lakes Cotton Company - Malawi

Plexus established Great Lakes Cotton Company as a joint venture trading operation in 1997.  The company moved into owning and operating cotton ginneries in the late 1990’s to guarantee the supply of high quality lint.  The Plexus / Great Lakes operations now comprise three gins in Uganda, two in Malawi, two in Mozambique and one in Zimbabwe.  The Malawi & Mozambique operations are verified Cotton Made in Africa producers and form the cornerstone of Plexus’ commitment to improving social and economic conditions at the origins in which it operates, and to the sustainable & transparent supply of ginned raw cotton.  In total the Plexus/Great Lakes operations produce around 150,000 bales of cotton per annum.  This cotton is marketed globally by Plexus along with a further 150,000 bales sourced from third-party ginners throughout East and Southern Africa.
ICA Talon - Benin

ICA Talon - Benin

Industries Cotonnières Associèes





NWK - Zambia

NWK - Zambia


NWK is an established and reputable agricultural business that boasts more than 100 year’s experience in the dynamic South African market environment. As a leading provider of agricultural services and inputs and owner of several cotton gins, NWK activly participates in the Cotton made in Africa initiative, by supporting zambian smallholder cotton farmers in their farming. Additionally, NWK assists a community project, which was initiated by the Otto Group and the Aid by Trade Foundation and is aiming at improving the educational infrastructure in their cotton farming regions

Ivoire Coton - Côte d'Ivoire

Ivoire Coton - Côte d'Ivoire

The mission of Ivoire Coton is to support development of cotton growing, and thus help to improve the conditions of life of the rural communities.
Olam Ghana - Ghana

Olam Ghana - Ghana

          


Plexus Cotton Limited - Mozambique

Plexus Cotton Limited - Mozambique



  
SECO - Côte d'Ivoire

SECO - Côte d'Ivoire



  

Why do you support CmiA?Statements by business managers

More than 20 companies from the clothing sector are currently partners of the international Demand Alliance of Cotton made in Africa. Their reasons for joining the initiative vary widely, ranging from the good quality of African cotton to the idea of sustainability, to an authenticity bonus for their products.

African cottonIn demand worldwide

African cotton is almost exclusively grown by smallholder farmers, using sustainable growing methods with harmony between agriculture, the natural environment and human beings. About 8% of the cotton traded in the world market is harvested in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Africa cotton is almost exclusively grown by smallholder farmers, and there are only very few large plantations. ...